Practice makes perfect! New tools for reading old handwriting

Friday 12 May 2017

Practice makes perfect: this is true of many things, but particularly so when attempting to read old handwriting. Palaeography skills develop with greater exposure and even experts will tell you that their ability to decipher a particular hand improves with acquaintance.

The ReadMe display at the Good Practice Exchange, 3 May 2017

Students who take the medieval and early modern MLitt programmes in English and History study palaeography as part of their course because they are likely to have to read original handwritten sources as part of their research. But getting opportunities to practise this new skill can be a challenge when class time is relatively short.

Dr Margaret Connolly, one of the collaborators on the project, with colleagues from the School of English Dr Chris Jones and Dr Rhiannon Purdie
Colleagues from the Library’s Academic Liaison team at the Good Practice Exchange. Left to right: Vicki Cormie, Hilda McNae and Sharon Nangle

ReadMe! is a digital resource developed by Margaret Connolly and Rachel Hart to give students the opportunity to follow up on their classroom experience. Once students have encountered an original manuscript and have had some initial instruction in reading it they are then able to continue practising reading the same hand away from the classroom by using the resource. ReadMe! offers an online exercise using a different sample from the same text, and students can work on this in their own time as homework.

Left: Sharon has a go!
Right: The Director of Library Services tries his hand!
Collaborators Dr Alan Miller (CompSci) with Dr Margaret Connolly (English) at the ReadMe! display in the corner of Lower College Hall

The ReadMe! resource incorporates digital images of key manuscripts held in the University Library. These have been carefully chosen to provide good examples of characteristic styles of handwriting from the medieval to the early modern periods. Short extracts are made available along with model transcriptions. Students enter their own transcriptions one line at a time. Clicking the MarkMe! button indicates the presence of mistakes. Anything that is flagged in red needs to be checked again. Students can amend their transcriptions and click MarkMe! as many times as they wish. When satisfied (or defeated!), they can click the ShowMe! button to reveal the correct transcription. This means that by using the resource students are able to get extra practice and instant feedback: in effect they can mark and correct their own work.

The ReadMe! tool features an inbuilt zoomable magnifying lens that allows individual words and even letters to be enlarged; individual pen-strokes can be studied, which really helps the task of transcription.

Dr Margaret Connolly shows ReadMe to Professor Andy Murphy, new Assistant Vice-Principal and Provost

This new digital resource is now part of three modules: EN5015 English (Medieval), EN5302 English (Renaissance) and MO5033 Early Modern History. It builds on the key features of learning palaeography at St Andrews. All our palaeography teaching is intensively source-based, and those sources are produced in the classroom so that there are original materials present throughout.

Margaret shows the tool to Katya from the Proctor’s office

Classes are led jointly by Dr Margaret Connolly of the School of English and the Institute of Mediaeval Studies, and Mrs Rachel Hart, Keeper of Manuscripts and Muniments in the University Library. This combination gives students the benefit of the different perspectives of the academic and the curator; classes frequently involve lively discussions and disagreement – deciphering and describing old handwriting can be a matter of fine interpretation and debate.

ReadMe! is an interdisciplinary project developed by the Schools of English and Computer Science and the Library’s Special Collections (Margaret Connolly, Rachel Hart, Alan Miller and Iain Oliver) with financial support from the Teaching Development Fund. The Open Source, web-based format means that this tool can be freely accessed. We also have instructions from our CompSci colleagues which will allow other images and transcriptions to be uploaded into xml.

ReadMe! was showcased at the University’s Good Practice Exchange on 3 May 2017 along with other Teaching Development and Enhancement Theme projects which were shared with the university community.

Display by Ishbel Duncan, Computer Science, of Pre-arrival Induction: an evaluation of the St Andrews Virtual World Induction
An Interactive Resource for Learning Programming Concepts was on display by Uta Hinrichs and colleagues from the School of Computer Science
The Proctor checking in with Kate Rudy’s project (and students) on ‘Teaching Excellence in Art History’

Please visit the website at and have a play with the resource. We would be delighted to have feedback and if anyone would like to try out the instructions for uploading their own documents and transcriptions, please do get in touch with Special Collections!

Margaret Connolly
School of English

Rachel Hart
Keeper of Manuscripts and Muniments

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4 thoughts on "Practice makes perfect! New tools for reading old handwriting"

  • Elektra
    Thursday 18 May 2017, 8.14pm

    Reblogged this on References.

  • Echoes From the Vault: Practice Makes Perfect! New Tools for Reading Old Handwriting | ResearchBuzz: Firehose
    Wednesday 31 May 2017, 3.45pm

    […] from the Vault: Practice Makes Perfect! New Tools for Reading Old Handwriting. “The ReadMe! resource incorporates digital images of key manuscripts held in the University […]

  • Omni Magazine, ProPublica, GMail, More: Thursday Afternoon Buzz, June 1, 2017 – ResearchBuzz
    Thursday 1 June 2017, 7.15pm

    […] from the Vault: Practice Makes Perfect! New Tools for Reading Old Handwriting. “The ReadMe! resource incorporates digital images of key manuscripts held in the University […]

  • Special Collections Teaching 2017/2018 – Martinmas Semester | Echoes from the Vault
    Wednesday 6 December 2017, 2.39pm

    […] in co-teaching the postgraduate level palaeography courses (Palaeography Class Trip 2016/17 and ReadMe Tool) but the library’s collections are also used for undergraduate level teaching and many […]


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